Layer 2 scaling solutions are emerging as a key tool to address the scalability issues plaguing blockchains. These solutions offer a way to increase transaction throughput, reduce fees and enable new applications, all while maintaining the security and decentralization of the underlying blockchain. Three notable Layer 2 scaling solutions that are receiving significant attention are zkRollups, Optimistic Rollups, and Plasma.


zkRollups are a Layer 2 scaling solution that leverage Zero-Knowledge Proofs (ZKPs) to bundle multiple transactions into a single proof, which is then submitted to the underlying blockchain for verification. This approach allows for a significant increase in throughput, as thousands of transactions can be processed in a single proof which can be verified in milliseconds. Additionally, since the ZKP verifies the validity of all transactions in the bundle, there is no need for each individual transaction to be verified on-chain. This reduces the amount of data that needs to be processed by the blockchain, which in turn reduces the fees associated with each transaction.

Optimistic Rollups

Optimistic Rollups are another Layer 2 scaling solution that operates on the principle of bundling transactions. However, instead of using ZKPs, Optimistic Rollups rely on a more simplified approach. Essentially, an Optimistic Rollup collects a group of transactions, and then submits them to the underlying blockchain for verification. Once the blockchain has verified the validity of the grouping, the Optimistic Rollup can assume all of the transactions are valid and can be processed without needing to be verified again. This eliminates the bottleneck associated with on-chain validation and allows for a huge increase in the number of transactions that can be processed.


Plasma is a Layer 2 scaling solution that is being developed by the Ethereum community. The Plasma network operates as a collection of side chains that are connected to the main Ethereum blockchain. Each side chain can process a significant amount of transactions, and once processed, the side chain can submit a single summary to the main Ethereum network. This summary will include all of the transactions that have been processed on the side chain, but it will be significantly smaller in size than if each transaction had been submitted individually. By connecting multiple side chains to the main network, the Plasma network can achieve a huge increase in overall transaction throughput.


Layer 2 scaling solutions are offering a way to address the scalability issues that have long dogged blockchain technology. By bundling transactions, using ZKPs, eliminating the need for on-chain validation, and connecting multiple side chains, these solutions can significantly improve the overall scalability of blockchain networks. As such, they are poised to play a significant role in shaping the future of the blockchain industry.